Culloden, the very name sends shivers down the spine of most Scots. It was here in this bleak moorland that the Jacobite attempt to seize the Crown for the Stuart family died.

Culloden on an April day can be very cold and bleak. The long grassy scrubland and bogs make this a very inhospitable area of Scotland .

So why did the last battle to take place in this country happen here?

Many have asked this question and the answer could only come from one person, Charles Edward Stuart. ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie' as history remembers him.
Bonnie Prince Charlie

Charles had landed in Scotland , with the intention of fighting for what he believed to be his father's crown. In truth he very nearly achieved his objective.

He had perhaps (in hind sight naively) listened to the words of a spy. This spy claimed there was an army of 30,000 approaching his small army at Derby .

How had Charles ended up in Derby ?

Well to answer that question we have to go back further in time, to the birth of James VI of Scotland First of England. The significance of James being born has been paramount in Scotland 's history. Many historical events stem from this persons birth.

The word Jacobite comes from the Jacob's, or James' from the Royal House of Stuart. The followers of the James' (James V through to VII) were therefore known as Jacobites.

James Charles Stuart was born on June 19, 1566 at Edinburgh Castle in Scotland . His father, Lord Darnley, was murdered in early 1567 before young James was even one year old. His mother was the famous Mary Queen of Scots. She ascended to the Scottish throne. But her reign however was short lived and she was forced to abdicate in favour of her son on July 24, 1567. The infant James was crowned King James VI of Scotland five days later. He was only13 months old at the time. John Knox, who would go on to become a huge figure in the restoration movement, preceded his coronation. James' mother, Mary, was imprisoned in England by her cousin Queen Elizabeth and 19 years later, in February of 1587, was executed for her part in the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth.

King James never knew his mother. And so, like many monarchs of the time, King James was reared by neither father nor mother but rather by tutors. Of his four tutors, perhaps one of the most influential was George Buchanan, a staunch Calvinist. It was under Mr. Buchanan's strict teaching methods that King James became one of the most learned and intellectually curious men to ever sit on any throne. Mr. Buchanan was 64 years old when he began tutoring the young king.

When James was just 19 years old he felt it was time to rule his native Scotland . A few years later, he took Anne of Denmark to be his queen.

Here is James VI family

MARRIED: August 20, 1589 (by proxy) November 23, 1589 (in person)

WIFE: Anne ( Oldenburg ) of Denmark , second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway ; Birth October 14, 1574 in Skanderborg, Castle; Death March 4, 1619 at Hampton Court Palace ; Burial, Westminster Abbey, London , England


•  Henry Frederick STUART, Prince of Wales
Birth 19 FEB 1594, Stirling Castle ; Death 6 NOV 1612, St. James Palace , England . Notes: Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles, Duke of Cornwall , Earl of Chester . Died of Typhoid.

•  STUART, Child
Birth JUL 1595; Death JUL 1595--Stillborn

•  Elizabeth STUART, "The Winter Queen", Queen of Bohemia
Birth 19 AUG 1596, Dunfermline; Death 13 FEB 1662, Leicester House, London , England . Notes: Married Frederick V, Elector of Palatine of the Rhine, King of Bohemia 1619-1620. Had 13 children.

•  Margaret STUART
Birth 24 DEC 1598, Dalkeith Palace ; Death MAR 1600, Linlithgow

•  Charles I STUART, King of Britain
Birth 19 NOV 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland; Death 30 JAN 1649, Whitehall Palace, England; Burial , St. George's, Chapel, Windsor, England. Notes: Acceded to English throne upon death of his father on March 27, 1625. Martyred.

•  Robert Bruce STUART, Duke of Kintyre
Birth 18 JAN 1602, Dunfermline; Death 27 MAY 1602, Dunfermline

•  Son
Birth MAY 1603, Stirling; Death MAY 1603, Stirling

•  Mary STUART
Birth 8 APR 1605, Greenwich Palace ; Death 16 SEP 1607, Stanwell Park , Middlesex , England

•  Sophia STUART
Birth 22 JUN 1606, Greenwich Palace ; Death 23 JUN 1606, Greenwich Palace

King James believed in the Divine Right of Kings and the monarch's duty to reign according to God's law.

In "Trew Law of Free Monarchies" James wrote:

"Out of the law of God, the duty, and allegiance of the people
to their lawful King, their obedience, I say, ought to be to him,
as to God's Lieutenant in earth, obeying his commands in all things,
except directly against God, as the commands of Gods
Minister, acknowledging him a Judge set by
God over them, having power to judge them, but to be
judged only by God."


He began grooming his son Henry to take over his Kingly duties. James was quite often an ill man, and he had also survived attempts made on his life. To ensure young Henry received all the proper instruction James wrote Basilicon Doron, which means, "the Kingly Gift". Basilicon Doron was not meant for general publication, but for the benefit of the young prince in the likely event that his father would not survive to personally pass his knowledge to him.

Here are two small quotations from the book.

"Diligently read his word, & earnestly...pray for the right understanding thereof. Search the scriptures saith Christ for they will bear testimony of me. The whole Scriptures saith Paul are profitable to teach, to improve, to correct, and to instruct in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect unto all good works.

"The whole Scripture contayneth but two things: a command and a prohibition. Obey in both... The worship of God is wholy grounded upon the Scripture, quickened by faith."

King James' had always had a great ambition to be the first King in history to rule both Scotland and England , and in the year of 1603, Queen Elizabeth the First died. James was about to get his dream come true. James ascended to the English throne that year he had already been king of Scotland for 36 years. He was now known as King James VI of Scotland & I of England.


James VII and First was a master of the political game, and using this skill he kept his kingdom out of war. For the first time a Scottish monarch held real power, and he used this power to greatly influence the whole of his empire. He supported literature both through his own writing and his patronage. There was peace during his reign--both with his subjects and foreign powers.

James had many enemies in his court, and much of it was because he was a Scot, ruling in England . As usual some of his problems stemmed from religion.

The Catholic religion was an enemy of King James. Papists (as King James called them) attempted to assassinate him a number of times. Most notably, in 1605 Roman Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up Parliament when the king was to have been present. The conspiracy was discovered and all co-conspirators were executed. This failed attempt is celebrated on November 5 th each year and is known as Guy Fawkes Night.

King James was an evangelist of the true gospel, which automatically made him an enemy of Rome . King James strongly delineated the errors of Roman superstition and spurned them yet he treated Romanist subjects fairly. Catholic ambassador Nicolo Molin said this of King James:

"He is a Protestant...the King tries to extend his Protestant religion to the whole island. The King is a bitter enemy of our religion. He frequently speaks of it in terms of contempt. He is all the harsher because of this last conspiracy against his life...He understood that the Jesuits had a hand in it."

Another little recognized fact is that King James the VI and I, is the founding monarch of the United States . Under his reign, we have the first successful colonies planted on the American mainland-- Virginia , Massachusetts , and Nova Scotia (Latin for New Scotland) in SE Canada . The King himself ordered, wrote and authorized the Evangelistic Grant Charter to settle the Colony of Virginia:

"To make habitation...and to deduce a colony of sundry of our people into that part of America , commonly called Virginia ...in propagating of Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness...to bring a settled and quiet government."

 Henry Frederick Stuart Prince of Wales (1594-1612), heir to, James VI of Scotland , James I of England , spent a considerable amount of time at Richmond Palace and with his sister Elizabeth Stuart and the son of John Lord Harrington of Kew farm. His Lordship was supposed to be looking after Elizabeth . He found that difficult. When Henry died in 1612 Charles, later Charles Ist, replaced him as heir to the throne. The Hanoverian dynasty derived from Elizabeth 's line.

James died in 1625. The doctors at the time thought it was not life threatening but James would not heed their advice and drank large amounts of cold beer to dilute his fever. He would not let them minister to him because of his fear of pain. There is some suggestion that he was poisoned but no proof.

See more about James VI in; The Treaty of union 1707

Charles the first the succeeded to the crown, and on his death at the chopping block ( re OLIVER CROMWELL ) he was succeeded by Charles II. For history of both kings;


The next monarch was to be James VII, James Stuart was born October 14, 1633, at St. James's Palace in London . He was the third son of King Charles I and of his wife, Princess Henrietta Maria of France . From his birth James bore the title "Prince of England, Scotland , France and Ireland ". He was also known as "Duke of York".

Shortly after he was born, James was baptised according to Anglican rites by William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were his aunt Elizabeth, Electress Palatine of the Rhine ("Winter Queen of Bohemia "); her son, Charles Louis, Elector Palatine of the Rhine ; and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Even at this stage the ‘House of Orange' were playing a part in the history of Scotland .

James was named Lord High Admiral of England , in 1638. On April 20, 1642, he became a Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, and rose to the Peerage of England with the title of "Duke of York", on January 27, 1644.

James realised that he had to escape from the Parliamentary forces that would execute his father the following year. For the next twelve years James lived in exile in France , and also spent time in the Low Countries . In 1652, he received a commission in the French Army and subsequently served in four campaigns under the Vicomte de Turenne. On May 10, 1659, James received the additional English title of "Earl of Ulster", and was then awarded by King Louis XIV of France , December 31, 1660, the title “Duke of Normandy”.

James wanted to return to England with his brother King Charles II, and did this in May 25, 1660. On September 3, 1660, at Worcester House, The Strand, London , he married Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, and of his wife, Frances Aylesbury. Only two daughters from their eight children, survived until adulthood.

  • Charles, Duke of Cambridge (1660-1661).
  • Mary (1662-1694), married Prince William III of Orange , Stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands .
  • James, Duke of Cambridge (1663-1667).
  • Anne (1665-1714), married Prince George of Denmark
  • Charles, Duke of Kendal (1666-1667).
  • Edgar, Duke of Cambridge (1667-1667).
  • Henrietta (1669-1669).
  • Katherine (1671-1671).

Catholic Church tried to get the monarch to convert to their religion and they achieved their objective when in 1670 both James and his wife Anne were reconciled to the religion. No public announcement of this decision was made, but both ceased to attend Anglican religious services. James' wife Anne died at St. James' Palace, London , March 31, 1671.

The ‘Test Act' was introduced in 1673. This act required the holders of all public offices to receive communion according to the rites of the Church of England, and to take an oath against the Catholic belief in transubstantiation.

James thereupon renounced his offices including that of Lord High Admiral of England . His conversion to Catholicism thereupon became public knowledge.

On September 20 1673, at the Ducal Palace , Modena , James was married by proxy to Princess Maria of Modena , daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena, and of his wife, Laura Martinozzi. The couple renewed their vows in person at Dover , Kent , November 21, 1673. The couple had twelve children of whom two survived to adulthood:



  • A stillborn prince (ss) (born 1674).
  • Katherine (1675-1675).
  • A stillborn prince (ss) (born 1675).
  • Isabella (1676-1681).
  • Charles, Duke of Cambridge (1677-1677).
  • Elizabeth (1678-1678).
  • A stillborn prince (ss) (born 1681).
  • Charlotte (1682-1682).
  • A stillborn prince (ss) (born 1683).
  • A stillborn prince (ss) (born 1684).
  • James, Prince of Wales, later King James III (1688-1766).
  • Louisa (1692-1712).
James VII Wife

Because of James' conversion to the Catholic faith, three attempts were made in Parliament to exclude him from the succession to the throne; none of these was successful. At the death of his brother Charles II, February 6, 1685, James succeeded as king. He was crowned privately according to the rites of the Catholic Church, April 22, 1685, at Whitehall Palace , and publicly according to the rites of the Church of England, April 23, 1685, at Westminster Abbey.

Always an advocate of liberty of conscience, James published a Declaration of Toleration for Scotland , February 12, 1687. He issued an even more liberal Declaration of Indulgence for England , April 4, 1687; this he re-issued April 27, 1688 with an order that it be read in all churches. Seven bishops petitioned against this order.

King William of Orange

On June 30, 1688, five English peers and two commoners (known as the ‘Immortal Seven') sent an invitation to James' son-in-law and nephew the Prince of Orange to invade England by force. On September 28, James published a proclamation against the forthcoming invasion. The Prince of Orange issued several declarations, September 30, October 10, and October 24, in each of which he stated his intention to restore the former state of religious oppression.

On November 5, the Prince of Orange landed at Brixham He came ashore from the ship "Brill" carried aloft by a local fisherman Peter Varwell to proclaim, "the liberties of England and the Protestant religion I will maintain".

William had come ashore with 15,500 soldiers and up to 4000 horses .

On December 11, James withdrew from London with the intention of retiring temporarily to France . This first effort was thwarted, but a second on December 23 was successful. A Convention of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, thereupon assembled at Westminster , and on February 13, 1689, published a declaration that James had abdicated the government. On April 11, 1689, a Convention of the Scottish Estates made a similar declaration.

James retired to France where he lived at the Château of St. Germain-en-Laye. He continued to be recognised as king by Louis XIV of France until the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697; on June 8, 1697, James published a protest against this treaty.

William Prince of Orange was then to come to the throne. He became William III and ruled with his wife Mary .

For further information on James VII, and William III see;

Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender . His Jacobite supporters referred to him as James III of England and VIII of Scotland . James personality was such that he had little to say for himself but he still made a huge impact on the history of this country.

James was born on June 10, 1688, at St. James's Palace, from the moment of his birth there was intrigue and suspicion. He was the son of King James II of England and his Roman Catholic second wife, Mary of Modena. From his first marriage. The king had to older daughters who were both of the protestant faith. The people were all in hope that one of these daughters would accend the throne and keep the country protestant. When people began to fear that Mary would produce a son and heir, a movement grew to replace James by force with his son-in-law, William of Orange.

Charles Edward Stewart

It was said when James had been born the doctor had sent out for a "warming-pan" It was suggested that this was some sort of code word that thew baby had been stillborn, and that a Within weeks of his birth, the child was sent to France for safety, and his father was fighting unsuccessfully to retain his crown. His Children were Mary II Anne James Francis Edward Stuart Grandchildren Charles Edward Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart

The prince was brought up in France , where, recognised by King Louis XIV of France as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones, he became the focus for the Jacobite movement. On his father's death in 1701, he was declared King, with the title of James III of England and VIII of Scotland and recognised as such by France ; Spain the Papal States and Modena . All of these states refused to recognise King William III, Queen Mary II or Queen Anne as the legitimate British sovereign.

Having been delayed in France by an attack of measles, James made an unsuccessful attempt to land at the Firth of Forth on March 23, 1708, but his French ships were driven back by the fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng. Had he renounced his Roman Catholic faith, he might have succeeded to the throne after the death of his half-sister Anne, but he refused to do so. As a result, in 1714, a German Protestant became King George I of Great Britain .

French forces were defeated, and King Louis XIV of France was forced to accept peace with England and her allies. He signed the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 that, amongst other conditions, required him to expel James from France .

In the following year, the Jacobites instigated a rebellion in Scotland aimed at restoring "King James III and VIII" to the throne. In 1715, James finally set foot on Scottish soil, following the indecisive Battle of Sheriffmuir, but he was disappointed by the strength of support he found. Instead of carrying through the plans for a coronation at Scone, he returned to France . He was not welcomed back, because his patron, Louis XIV, was dead and the government found him an embarrassment. The Pope offered him refuge in Rome , where he lived for the rest of his life.

On September 3, 1719, James Francis Edward Stuart married Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702-1735), granddaughter of the Polish king, John III Sobieski. They had two sons:

  • Charles Edward Stuart, (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), aka " Bonnie Prince Charlie "
  • Henry Benedict Stuart, (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807)

Following James's failure, attention turned to his handsome and charismatic son, "Bonnie Prince Charlie", James died in Rome on January 1, 1766, and is buried in St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican .

Charles Edward Stuart, AKA. ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie' , The Young Pretender, The Young Chevalier (1720-88), claimant to the British throne who led the Scottish Highland army in the ‘Forty-five' attempt to regain the crown for the Stuarts. The son of James Francis Edward Stuart and grandson of James II of England , Charles Edward was born December 31, 1720, in Rome . In the year 1744, after his father had obtained the support of the French government for a projected invasion of England , Charles Edward went to France to assume command of the French expeditionary forces. Unfavourable weather and the mobilisation of a powerful British fleet to oppose the invasion led to cancellation of the plan by the French government. Charles Edward, was a dedicated and determined person who dreamed of driving George II from the British throne. On 23 July 1745, Charles landed on the white sands of the Outer Hebridean island of Eriskay , accompanied only by a small band of companions known as the "Seven Men of Moidart". The Prince is said to have scattered some seeds there and to this day a flower known as the Prince's Flower grows there and nowhere else in Scotland .

Initially, the Highland chiefs were reluctant to join him, particularly as he had no French army with him. The first to announce he would follow Charles was Ranald MacDonald and others soon followed. The Prince's standard was raised at Glenfinnan at the head of Loch Shiel on 19th August. (There is a statuette sighted at the spot of a highlander gazing out to sea) Charles must have been a worried man at this point as at first there was no sign of any gathering clans but late in the afternoon the Camerons of Lochiel arrived followed by MacDonalds and MacGregors. Eventually some 1,500 men assembled. Many chiefs were reluctant to join him, but his enthusiasm and charm persuaded many who heard him. It is likely that the news that the Campbells were gathering a unit to assist the government forces may have induced some clans. Many had agendas of their own, which included revenge on the Campbells , and thought the Jacobite cause would be a good vehicle for this action.

The Highland army left Glenfinnan, and marched across Scotland , gathering more men as it went. In early September the army reached Perth and the Prince stayed at the Salutation Hotel. To this day there is still a hotel there. The room where he slept is still used as a bedroom. Because he was a direct descendant of Robert the Bruce Prince Charles rode into the city in full Highland dress. In Perth Lord George Murray who was an able soldier joined him and he was appointed lieutenant general of the Jacobite army. While in Perth , Charles is said to have visited Scone , the place where so many of his ancestors had been crowned.

Palace of Holyroodhouse

On 17 September the Jacobite army entered Edinburgh and Bonnie Charlie took up residence in the Palace of Holyroodhouse . The Hanoverian arm, where playing things very low key and had managed to avoid any large-scale conflicts with the Jacobite army. The Hanoverians were encamped at Prestonpans, to the east of Edinburgh under the command of Sir John Cope, waiting for reinforcements from the south. On September 21, Lord George Murray led the Jacobites in a circle to the south and took the redcoats by surprise by attacking at dawn from the rear. The whole Battle of Prestonpans lasted only 15 minutes and gave the Jacobites a massive victory. Sir John Cope who was a very experienced soldier and commander had run from the battle as if being chased by the Hounds of Hell.

Five weeks later Prince Charles left Scotland 's capital City of Edinburgh and crossed the border with 5,500 men and advanced through England . By 4 December they had reached as far as Derby in the heart of England , 120 miles from London . But bad winter weather was taking its toll and there was no swelling of the ranks from the people of England . Faced by a Hanoverian army of 12,000 and another army of redcoats coming south behind them, the Prince's advisers recommended retreat. What they did not know was that London was in panic and King George had his valuables packed on a boat on the river Thames . Charles argued against retreat but eventually had to accept. The Hanoverian army were commanded by William, Duke of Cumberland, son of King George I, The Jacobites mainly kept ahead of him and reached Glasgow by Christmas Day. While in Glasgow , Prince Charles met 20-year-old Clementina Wilkinshaw who was later to become his mistress. On 17th January, the Jacobite and Hanoverian armies met near Falkirk . Thanks once again to the tactics of Lord George Murray, the Highlanders inflicted heavy casualties on the redcoats who left the field of battle in confusion, only failing light stopping a rout. In the entire campaign from Glenfinnan to Falkirk the Jacobite army had never been defeated.

After Falkirk , Charles was all for turning south again but his officers advised moving north. Charles was very annoyed at this turn of events, but had to accept his officer's decision. His army grew smaller as they marched north through the Highlands . Many of the men headed home but with the intentions of returning once they had visited their families The Duke of Cumberland was again in pursuit with fresh troops. By 20 February Charles had about 5,000 men when they reached Inverness . It took time for the government forces to assemble and reach the Moray Firth but gradually 8,000 men were advancing on Inverness . On 16 April 1746 the opposing forces met on Culloden Moor .

The Jacobite army made their way through the hills back home to the Highlands . The army had just arrived in Inverness when news arrived that Cumberland had made camp in Nairn: about 15 miles away. Exhausted, freezing, and starving, out of supplies and ammunition some of his army went home to their families and some stayed. Charles thought he would take the upper hand and strike first. He sent 1,500 of his best troops to make a night march on Cumberland 's camp. In the morning they returned after having no success and later that morning on April 16th 1746 Cumberland 's army marched onto the moors at Culloden and faced his foe.

Just over 4,000 Jacobite supporters stood in the snow driven moors in mid morning, some had been up all night after their night march, all were starving, tired and worse for wear. A mixture of Clans, Irish and men from the ages of 51 years to as young as 13 stood in front of a veteran force of over 9,000 well supplied infantry and cavalry.

Culloden today

Cumberland 's troops were made up of English veterans fresh from Europe and over 4,000 Scots: more Scots were facing Charles than were standing next to him. For many though it was more a case of Clan revenge than a fight for a crown.

The Duke's army had canon and riffle-musket. Each man equipped with enough ammunition for at least 24 rounds. On the Prince's side they were armed with musket-pistols - and no ammunition. He too had 3lb canons - but supplied with 4lb shot. It was back to the old ways - The Highland Charge.

A little after 12:30 that afternoon the Princes side fired what canon they had and waited for the return volley - which came swiftly. His troops were cut down in the dozen by the onslaught of Cumberland 's artillery. Disembowelled by the flying balls of 4lb steel, arms legs and heads were scattered amongst the bunched up and freezing Jacobites. It all lasted for minutes and when the smoke cleared all that was left to do was to run or charge - the Jacobites outnumbered by at least 2 to 1 Charged on the right flank of Cumberland 's lines. For a brief spell the Duke's troops on the right were scattered, but soon closed ranks on the charging Highlanders and began the massacre, in turn scattering the Highlanders across 'Cumberland's Bloody Killing Field'.

By 1:00, only 30 minutes later it was all over and those Highlanders, who could, ran for cover and back to their homes. By Cumberland 's own estimate, some 2,000 Highlanders lay dead on Culloden Moor . These figures have never been seriously challenged and neither has the figure of 300 dead and injured from his side. A more exact figure has been put forward of 1,500 Highlanders but still only 300 of the Dukes men.

The memories of Culloden still run deep in the blood of Highlanders the world over because this battle was not the end - it was just the beginning!

Cumberland gave orders for "No Quarter Given": in other words 'none shall live'. His army marched on and killed every wounded Highlander left on the field - and then made his way to Inverness to carry on the fight. Raiding homes looking for Jacobites, all were labelled as one and swiftly put either to the end of a musket - bayonet - hangman's rope or burnt alive in their homes. Women, children, old and young, his orders were "No Quarter Given" - and none was.

Battle of Culloden

The slaughter did not end there on that day, and this is the significance of the Jacobites in Scottish history: particularly Highland history. For months his army moved around the Highlands clearing out any threat once and for all that Highlander should ever pick up a Broadsword against England . It can be quoted from English parliament in reply to Cumberland 's reports that they sent message saying "It will be no great mischief if all should fall". The support for Cumberland 's ethnic cleansing was total.

The "Jacobite Rebellion” brought the government forces down on anyone who was thought to have participated in the cause. Many houses and castles were torched. Hundreds were executed (after brief trials in England), 700 died in the prison ships in the river Thames in London and a thousand were sold as slaves to the American plantations. The kilt was banned and no Highlander could carry a weapon. The Highland clearances had begun.

Prince Charles had to flee the battlefield. A huge reward of £30,000 for his capture was offered. Not one person tried to claim the (for that time) massive amount of money. The next five months many brave people kept Charles out of the hands of the Hanoverians. By the end of April he had sailed to the Outer Hebrides , remaining there for two months. Charles was an excellent shot and his marksman skills were used to fed both him and his companions.. Towards the end of June, government forces were closing on him in Uist. Flora MacDonald was recruited to spirit him over the sea to Skye, disguised as her maid. The song "Over the Sea to Skye” commemorates that journey. They reached Portree a few days later and the Prince bade farewell to Flora on 1 July. Eventually, on 20 September, he embarked from Arisaig for France in a French ship that had been sent to collect him.

When Bonnie Prince Charlie left Scotland he fully intended to raise more money and return with French soldiers to mount another campaign. He never did. He visited London in disguise in 1750 and met up again with Clementina Wilkinshaw. She later accompanied him to Paris . They parted in 1760.

His campaign in 1745 was against the wishes of his father, the Old Pretender and they never met again in the remaining twenty years of the life of James Francis Stuart.

In 1772, at the age of 52, Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg who was aged 20. In 1780, she fled from his excessive drinking and mood swings. She was later welcomed at the court of King George III in London . In his last few years, Charlotte Wilkinshaw, his daughter by Clementina, looked after Charles. He died in Rome in her arms on 31 January 1788 and was buried at a church in Frascatti


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